Once the objectives of the new forest have been considered and species to be planted selected, it is time to begin the practical side of the site development.
The first activity is the removal of any unwanted scrub such as furze or brambles to keep the area of unplantable land to a minimum. This is usually carried out by a tracked excavator with a grading bucket.
Many sites, especially those on peaty soils, require a fire-belt of 6 meters in width to be established around the boundary of the site. An excavator is used to remove all the vegetation from this area. The fire-belt will prevent slow creeping ground fires from spreading into the plantation and will also permit easy access to aid the fighting of fires. It is important that these fire-belts are kept clear of vegetation at all times.
Most sites require some sort of ground preparation, which will increase the survival rate of the planted trees, and improve the drainage on the site. The three most common types of ground preparation are:
If a site is not already fenced it is very likely that it will require some sort of protection from cattle, sheep, deer or rabbits/hares. The best time to erect any fencing is before planting commences, so that trees are being planted into a protected environment. Fencing is one of the most expensive elements of site developments and should therefore be carefully considered.
After the initial ground preparation and site development it is possible to proceed with the planting of the site. It is essential at this stage to spend time with the planting contractors to ensure that the trees being planted are healthy, the correct species are planted in the right place and that the trees are well planted. Trees should be planted so that all roots are covered but not so deep that the stem bark is likely to rot. Each tree should be well firmed in so there are no air pockets around the roots.